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 unit 7 الصف الثانى الثانوى

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تاريخ التسجيل : 04/11/2011

مُساهمةموضوع: unit 7 الصف الثانى الثانوى   الخميس ديسمبر 29, 2011 5:01 pm






chain
chief
representative
yield
afford
corporation
distribute
economy
economic
harbour
transport
create
interconnected
particular
business organization
improve
agriculture
capital
local community
national economy
global trade
world trade
international trade
ship (v.)
an hour's drive
fuel
export company
import company
exports
imports
export
import
fresh vegetables
the Middle East
onions
lemon
manager سلسلة
رئيس / رئيسى / كبير
ممثل / مندوب
انتاجية / محصول
يقدر على شراء شئء
شركة / مؤسسة تجارية
يوزع
الاقتصاد
اقتصادى
ميناء
ينقل / نقل / مواصلات
يخلق
متصل / مترابط
معين
مؤسسة تجارية

يحسن
الزراعة
رأس المال
مجتمع محلى
الاقتصاد القومى
التجارة العالمية
التجارة العالمية
التجارة العالمية
يشحن (بالبحر)
على مسافة ساعة بالسيارة
وقود
شركة للتصدير
شركة للاستيراد
صادرات
واردات
يصدر
يستورد
خصراوات طازجة
الشرق الأوسط
البصل
ليمون
مدير employ
global
goods
technology
wages
international
communicate
appointment
national income
barrels
cargo
minerals
perishable
perish
chemicals
invest
investment
investor
wealth
order
relationship
quantity
good quality
taxes
visitor
sale
oil
petrol
population
overpopulation
pollution
concern
metal goods
food industry
produce
production
customer
water (v) يوظف / يستخدم
عالمى
سلع / بضائع
تكنولوجيا
أجور
دولى / عالمى
يتصل
موعد
الدخل القومى
براميل
شحنة
معادن
قابل للتلف
يتلف
مواد كيميائية
يستثمر
استثمار
مستثمر
ثروة
بطلب
علاقة
كمية
ذو نوعية جيدة
ضرائب
زائر
اوكازيون
البترول / الزيت
البنزين
السكان
الزيادة السكانية
التلوث
اهتمام
سلع معدنية
صناعة الاغذية
ينتج
الانتاج
زبون

sales manager
introduce
reception desk
receptionist
welcome
buyer
research scientist
economics
chemist
businessman
business person
global economy مدير مبيعات
يقدم (شخص لشخص)
مكتب الاستقبال
موظف استقبال
يرحب بـ
مسترى
عالم أبحاث
علم الاقتصاد
كيميائى / صيدلى
رجل أعمال
رجل أعمال
الاقتصاد العالمى opportunities
supply
methods
industrial
trade
trader
cheaply
location
local workers
advantages
disadvantages
environment فرص
يمد / يزود / امداد
طرق
صناعى
يتاجر / تجارة
تاجر
بسعر رخيص
موقع
عمال محليون
مميزات
عيوب
بيئة

• Prepositions, Idioms and Expressions:
take place
for the first time
take a seat
have problems
do a project on
feel at home
grow up
make money
make a profit
set up
increase in يحدث
لأول مرة
يجلس
يواجه مشكلات
يقوم بعمل بحث فى
يشعر و كأنه فى بيته
يكبر
يكون ثروة
يحقق ربح
يؤسس / يبدأ مشروع تجارى
زيادة فى proud of
lead to
a win-win situation
good for
stay at / in
stay with
all over Egypt
thank for
in the same region
communicate with
all over the world فخور بـ
يؤدى الى
موقف فى صالح الطرفين
مفيد لـ
يمكث فى (مكان)
يمكث مع (شخص)
فى كل أنحاء مصر
يشكر على
فى نفس المنطقة
يتصل بـ
فى كل أنحاء العالم

• Derivatives:
Verb Noun Adjective
nationalize يؤمم nation أمة national قومى / وطنى
economise يقتصد economy اقتصاد economic اقتصادى
economical مقتصد / مدبر
employ يوظف employee موظف
employer صاحب العمل employable صالح للعمل
distribute يوزع distribution توزيع
communicate يتصل communication اتصال
represent يمثل representative ممثل / مندوب




• Important Vocabulary for translation and composition:
agricultural
public libraries
pressures
unemployment
industrial
commercial
communications زراعي
المكتبات العامة
الضغوط
البطالة
صناعـي
تجـاري
الاتصالات deep effect
slogan
destructive
proud of
advantages
disadvantages
diagnose diseases تأثير عميق
شعـار
مدمــر
فخـور بـ
مزايـا
عيوب
يشخص الأمراض



 export / import:
export ……… to: يصدر ...... الى
* This company exports fresh vegetables and fruits to many countries.
import …… from: يستورد ....... من
* Many countries import cotton from Egypt.
*****************************
 harbour / port
مرفأ: المكان الذى ترسو به السفنharbour
* The weather was too rough for the fishing boats to leave harbour yesterday.
ميناء: المنطقه التى تأتى اليها وتغادر منها السفنport
1- Alexandria is a famous port in Egypt.
2- The damaged ship reached the port safely.
*****************************
 made of / made from / made in / made by:
made from: مصنوع من (المادة المصنع منها الشئ تتغير و لا نراها)
* Bread is made from flour, water and yeast.
made of: مصنوع من ( المادة المصنع منها الشئ لا تتغير و نراها)
* Furniture is made of wood.
made in: مصنوع فى (مكان / سنة)
1- We should buy goods made in Egypt.
2- This car was made in 2007.
made by: مصنوع بواسطة
* This dress was made by a clever dressmaker.
*****************************
 economic / economical:
economic: اقتصادى ( ترتبط بالتجارة و الصناعة)
* economic situation موقف / system نظام/ problems / development نمو
economical: اقتصادى ( ترتبط بتوفير الوقت و الجهد و المال )
* economical person / machine
*****************************


 afford + to + inf. .لديه من المال ما يمكنه من شراء ...
afford + n.
1- I can’t afford to buy a new car.
2- I wish I could afford a new computer.
*****************************
 Most = nearly all / almost allمعظم
* Most students passed the test. = Nearly all students passed the test.
*****************************
 hire / rent:
hire: يستأجر (لفترة قصيرة)
* You can hire a dress for the party if you can't afford to buy one.
hire out: يؤجر
* I hire out my boat by the day.
rent: يستأجر (لفترة طويلة)
* I'd like to rent a yacht يخت for a cruise this summer.
rent out: يؤجر
* He owns a three-bedroom house that he rents out.
*****************************
 affect (v.) يؤثر على / effect (n.) تأثير
affect + + مفعول حال
* Smoking affects health badly.
affect = have an effect on
have a/an + صفة + effect + on + مفعول
* Smoking has a bad effect on health.
•عند استخدام effect بدلا من affect يتغير زمن have حسب زمن الفعل الأساسي للجملة:
1- The storm affected the roads badly. (effect)
- The storm had a bad effect on the roads.
2- The accident has affected her deeply. (effect)
The accident has had a deep effect on her.
*****************************
 start يبدأ
start with = begin with + n.
start by = begin by + v-ing
1- Let's begin with exercise B.
2- He started his speech by telling us something about his life.
*****************************
 trade in / trade with:
trade in: يتاجر فى (سلعة)
* The company has been trading in oil for many years.
trade with: يتاجر مع (شخص / دولة)
* For centuries, Native Americans traded with European settlers. مستوطنين
*****************************

 Everyday (adj.) يوميا Every day (adv.) كل يوم
1- We face a lot of problems in our everyday life. كل يوم
2- I go to school every day. يوميا
*****************************
 (be) located in \ on
be located in = be situated in للتعبير عن موقع مكان في دولة أو قارة مثلا
be located on = be situated on للتعبير عن الموقع علي بحر أو نهر أو محيط
1- The office is located in the city center.
2- The town is situated on the Mediterranean Sea.
♦هناك أسماء تنتهى بحرفs و لكنها ليست جمع و يأتى معها الفعل فى صيغة المفرد مثل
economics علم الاقتصاد physics علم الفيزياء athletics الألعاب الرياضية
statistics علم الاحصاء mathematics الرياضيات
1- Athletics is my favourite sport.
2- Physics is difficult to study.
•في حالة وجود اسمين يجمع الثاني ويعامل الأول كصفة ولا يجمع:
a car factory مصنع سيارات two car factories
a door knob مقبض الباب three door knobs
a clothes company شركة ملابس
 لاحظ أن كلمة ملابس جمع و ليس لها مفرد.
*****************************
♦لاحط أن كلمة chief تأتى مع كلمات مثل engineer / buyer
chief buyer المشترى الرئيسى
chief engineer كبير المهندسين
*****************************





يستخدم ضمير الوصل لربط جملتين و يحل محل اسم أو ضمير موجود غالبا في الجملة الثانية:

تستخدم who لتحل محل الفاعل أو المفعول. أما whom فتحل محل المفعول فقط و غالبا تستخدم مكانها who:
1- The boy looks very tired. He ran a long way. (who)
- The boy who ran a long way looks very tired.
2- The woman was put in jail. The police charged her with murder. (who) .
- The woman who (whom) the police charged with murder was put in jail.

• تستخدم which لتحل محل الفاعل و المفعول غير العاقل:
* The job was very tiring. He applied for it a week ago. (which)
- The job which (that) he applied for was very tiring.



•تستخدم whose للملكية.
* The man felt very sad. His wife died in the accident. (whose)
- The man whose wife died in the accident felt very sad.

•تستخدم when بدلا من which و حرف جر إذا كانت تدل على زمن:

* The day was remembered for long. They met on it. (which\when)
- The day on which they met was remembered for long.
- The day when they met was remembered for long.


•تستخدم where بدلا من which و حرف جر إذا كانت تدل على مكان أو بدلا من there
1- The shop was so big. He worked in it. (which / where)
- The shop which he worked in was so big.
- The shop where he worked was so big.
2- He went to Acapulco. He spent most of his holiday there. (where)
- He went to Acapulco where he spent most of his holiday.


What = the thing that / the things that
1- The things that we saw astonished us. (what)
- What we saw astonished us.
2- The thing that annoys him is that his friend always comes late. (what)
- What annoys him is that his friend always comes late.
☺ملحوظات هامه:-
 لاحظ أن هناك نوعان من عبارات الوصل ، النوع الأول يعطي معلومة أساسية عن الشيء أو الشخص أو المكان الذي نتحدث عنه ونستخدم في هذا النوع who / which / whom ولا نستخدم comma قبل أو بعد عبارة الوصل. ويمكن استخدام that بدلا من ضمائر الوصل المذكورة .
1- The company which he works for sells computer.
2- The woman who killed her husband was sentenced to death. حكم عليها بالإعدام

 والنوع الثاني لا تقدم عبارة الوصل معلومة هامة عن الشيء أو الشخص أو المكان الذي نتحدث عنه ولا بد من استخدام comma قبل وبعد عبارة الوصل و لا تستخدم that في هذا النوع:
1- Mr. Ahmed, who has just arrived, is a famous politician.
2- The company, which is in Cairo, employs 200 people.

 لاحظ أن that / who لا يسبقهما حرف جر:
* The man for whom he works is German. (who)
- The man that he works for is German.
- The man who / whom he works for is German.

 لاحظ استخدام that بعد صفات التفضيل للإشارة إلي غير العاقل: وفي حالة وجود عاقل مع صفات التفضيل يمكن أن نستخدم that أو who:
1- This is the best book that I have ever read.
2- He was the best king that / who ever sat on the throne. العرش

 عادة تستخدم that بعد الكلمات الآتية: All / much / little (that)
* All the apples that fall are eaten by the goats.

 لاحظ في الجملة الآتية أنه لا يمكن استخدام that بدلا من which إلا إذا وضعنا حرف الجر بعد الفعل لأن :
* The house cost him a lot of money. He lived in it.
- The house in which he lived cost him a lot of money.
- The house that he lived in cost him a lot of money.

 يمكن استخدام to + inf. بدلا من عبارة الوصل اذا كان ضمير الوصل في الجملة يحل محل الفاعل وفي حالة وجود: The first / second/last/only
1- Ali was the first student who arrived at school.
= Ali was the first student to arrive at school.
2- He was the last man who left the ship.
= He was the last man to leave the ship.
 لاحظ تركيب الجملة الآتية:
It + is / was + اسم + who / that …
It + is / was + اسم + which / that …
1- It was Peter who broke the window.
2- It was the bus that delayed us.

 يمكن حذف ضمير الوصل في الحالات الآنية (مع ضرورة حذف To Be أيضا):
1) إذا كان بعده مبنى للمجهول :
* The man ran away. He was arrested for murder last month.
- The man who was arrested for murder last month ran away.
- The man arrested for murder last month ran away.

2) أو إذا كان بعده جار و مجرور (حرف جر واسم):
* The boy wants to borrow some books. He is in the library.
- The boy (who is) in the library wants to borrow some books.

3) أو إذا كان بعده اسم أو صفة بعدها اسم:
* John Smith was interviewed on TV. He is a famous runner.
- John Smith, (who is) a famous runner, was interviewed on TV.




 لابد من استخدام ضمير الوصل إذا جاء في مكان الفاعل و بعده الفعل و إذا حذف ضمير الوصل و كانت الجملة معلوم active نستخدم :v.+ ing
* The man is very kind. He works in this office.
- The man who works in this office is very kind.
- The man working in this office is very kind.

 يمكن حذف ضمير الوصل إذا جاء مكان المفعول:
* The officer treated me very well. I met him at the police station.
- The officer whom/ who/ that I met at the police station treated me very well.
- The officer I met at the police station treated me very well.







Business Letters الخطابات التجارية
 الخطاب التجاري هو خطاب يرسل إلي شركة أو مؤسسة أو بنك أو جهة رسمية لغرض معين مثل الحصول علي وظيفة أو قرض مثلا وعادة يكتب بلغة رسمية
1- اكتب عنوانك و التاريخ في أعلي يمين الصفحة.
2- يمكنك إضافة رقم التليفون و البريد الإلكتروني.
3- يكتب اسم وعنوان الشخص أو الشركة التي تكتب لها في الجانب الأيسر من الصفحة بعد عنوانك مباشرة.
4- ابدأ الحطاب باستخدام لقب الشخص اذا كنت تعرفه "Dear Mrs Jones" أما اذا كنت لا تعرف اسم الشخص ابدأ بـ "Dear Madam" بالنسبة للسيدة أو "Dear Sir" بالنسبة للرجل. و اذا كنت لاتعرف اسم أو جنس الشخص الذى تكتب له ابدأ بـ
Dear Sir or Madam" .
5- في الفقرة الأولي وضح الغرض من الخطاب.
6- لا تستخدم اختصارات في الأفعــال بل نستخدم الصيغة الكاملة مثل
"I will, I would, I am, I have "
7- الجمل الآتية تصلح لإنهاء الخطـاب:
- I look forward to hearing from you.
- I am looking forward to meeting you.
8- في نهاية الخطاب ، استخدم Yours sincerely, ثم وقع و اكتب اسمك










نموذج للخطاب التجارى
Write a letter applying for the job of a medical representative advertised in Al Ahram Weekly by Mr Ragab, the personnel manager of Valtim Pharmaceuticals Company, PO box 701, Heliopolis, Cairo. Your name is Hani Ramzy and you live at 40 Manyal Street, Cairo.






























• Exercises on Vocabulary and Language Notes:
1- Choose the correct answer:
1- To (employ – dismiss – expel – convoy) means to pay someone to work for you.
2- (Fees – Fares – Salaries – Wages) means the money that someone is paid every week by their employer
3- To (affect – afford – offend – defend) means to have enough money to pay for something.
4- To (distribute – disturb – distill – destroy) means to supply goods to shops and companies in a particular area
5- A (collaboration – combination – contamination – corporation) is a large business
organisation.
6- (General – Global – Verbal – Herbal) means affecting or including the whole world.
7- (Astronomy – Anatomy – Economy – Gloomy) is the way that money, businesses and products are organized in a country
8- (Woods – Goods – Methods – Roots) are things that are produced to be sold.
9- The global economy has increased (international – rational – irrational – intentional) trade.
10- The (economic – historic – climatic – dynamic) situation in our country is getting better.
11- New businesses will (destroy – enjoy - employ –annoy) hundreds of people in the
city. There will be a lot of job opportunities.
12- E-mails help to improve the way companies (calculate – advocate - communicate – dedicate) with their customers.
13- China has a (pollution – population – revelation – violation) of 1.3 billion people.
14- They chose a famous barrister to (present - represent – offend – resent) them in court.
15- This drug is said to have no side (affects – reflects – effects – contests).
16- The books will be (distributed-contributed-attributed-split) free to local schools.
17- (Fees-Fares-Salaries-Wages) means the money that someone is paid every week by
their employer
18- The Channel Tunnel has improved the (contribution-conclusion-distribution-
destruction) of goods between the British Isles and mainland Europe.
19- We stayed (on-in-with-from) Montreal for two weeks then flew home.
20- They said they would stay (on-at-with-for) a hotel.
21- The children usually stay (on-at-with-for) their grandparents for a week in the summer.
22- Students were asked to (make-work-take-do) a project on Egyptian export companies.
23- We can now (communicate-tie-connect-commemorate) with people on the other side
of the world.
24- She makes a big (profit-gain-win-perfect) from selling waste material to
textile companies.
25- The global economy has increased (local-national-regional-international) trade.
• Exercise on grammar:
1- Choose the correct answer:
1. Mr. Peter (who – which – whose – whom) has just arrived in Egypt is the chief
buyer for a Chinese import company.
2. He is at Cairo airport, (when – whom – where – why) Mr. Ali is meeting him.
3. The supermarket, (which – whose – where – what) Miss O'Connor works for, buys
fruit and vegetables from an Egyptian company..
4. 1 spent most of the time studying the reports (which – whom – where – when) you
sent me about the low yield problems that you have.
5. The man (which – where – whose - that) John met at the airport was from Edinburgh
in Scotland.
6. Can you suggest a time (which - when – where – that) you can come to our office
tomorrow?
7. Falcon, (which – when – where – whose) was started in 1998 is an important
Egyptian export company.
8. Mr. Ahmed, (whose – where - who – when) is the manager of Falcon, has worked
for Falcon for 25 years.
9. Tom, (who – there – which – whom) works as a research scientist, comes from
Edinburgh.
10. The company (where – in which – with whom -which ) I work for imports cotton
from Egypt.
11. 1970 was the year (when – which – where – whose) my mother was born in.
12. The company (which – where – what – whose) my father works exports goods to
Europe and Asia.
13. Port Said, (when – that – which – where) his business is located, is an hour's drive
from our house.
14. The Sales Manager of the company, (who – which – whom – where) is 26 years
old, studied economics at university.
15. The person (that – which – where – when) the company belongs to is an
accountant.
16. The company, (who-which-where-when) he works for imports cotton from Egypt.
17. The big projects, (are carried out-will carry out-carrying out-carried out), will
increase the national income.
18. This is the mechanic (which-whose-who-whom) repaired my car.
19. Romeo and Juliet were two lovers (which-whose-who-that) parents hated each
other.
20. Students (arrived-arriving-arrive-who arriving) late missed the start of the experiment.
21. You’ll be punished for all (which-what-that-where) you have done.
22. July is the month (when-who-which-where) I go on holiday.
23. Over the road is the hairdresser’s (who-whose-whom-where) I usually have my
hair cut.
24. He met one of his old friends in Tanta (which-that-where-who) he lives.
25. This is the time (which-when-who-that) she usually arrives.







الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://althanwybnat.hooxs.com
 
unit 7 الصف الثانى الثانوى
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

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