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 unit 1 تانيه ثانوى

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تاريخ التسجيل : 04/11/2011

مُساهمةموضوع: unit 1 تانيه ثانوى   الخميس ديسمبر 29, 2011 4:52 pm








مهندس مدني civil engineer تكييف هواءair conditioning
أحفادgrandchildren وفد – بعثةdelegation
زى رسمي uniform بحث ( علمي مثلا ) research
شركة company يستمتع ﺑenjoy +( N / V+ing
زكى – أنيق smart = intelligent يدرب - يتدرب train -ed -ed
مريح comfortable يرتدى wear (wore – worn )
ودود friendly حديث – عصريmodern X historic
يعود come back = return كفء- ذو كفاءة efficient
داخلinside X outside صعب – صلب – جامد – شاق – بجد hard
ضوضاء noise يسخن – حرارة heat
اله – ماكينة machine ثقيل heavy X light
well-known = famous
مشهور – معروف حول – حوالي around
طريق road طوال الوقتall the time
سدdam كوبري bridge
مثير exciting غنى rich X poor
يصلarrive -d -d يتاجر – تجارةtrade -d -d
قائد – زعيم leader تقرير – يقدم تقرير - يبلغreport -d - d
أخبار news عنوان فى جريدة أو مجلة headline
عطلة نهاية الأسبوع weekend ورقة – ورق – صحيفة paper
عمل تجارى business حوار – يحاور interview
سحرmagic رأىopinion
قومي national برنامج programme
نوع kind = type = sort دولى international
جامعة university الهجاء – التهجي spelling
ينطقpronounce - d -d النطق pronunciation
حدث – فعلaction خبرة – تجربة فى الحياة experience
فترة زمنية period يحدث happen = take place = occur
يكررrepeat -ed - ed عادة فردية habit
بطاقة card مكررrepeated
مكتب للعمل office اجتماع - مقابلة meeting
ابتدائي primary ضوء- خفيف - فاتح light
يؤهل qualify -ied -ied عمليةoperation
زرع - نقل transplant جراح surgeon
جمعية خيرية charity مقال فى جريدة أو مجلة article
مشهور عالمياworld-famous يذكر mention -ed -ed
قريةvillage جراح قلب heart surgeon
مشكلة problem موقف situation
يدرس – يذاكر study - ied -ied فكرة idea
يعلم teach taught taught طب – دواء medicine
قيادة – زعام leadership مؤهلات qualifications
مديرboss قائدleader
فريق team مركز centre
هليكوبتر helicopter طائرة plane
أستاذ جامعي professor صحيhealthy
متقاعد – على المعاش retired يتقاعد – يحال على المعاش retire -d -d
سن التقاعدretirement age التقاعد retirement
علاج treatment يستمر continue -d -d
خلية – زنزانة cell بشرى – ادمي human
طبيعيnormal X abnormal يتوقفstop -ped -ped
ممتازexcellent مجتمعsociety
خاصspecial X general منظمةorganisation
محسن – خيّر – خيرىcharitable صفات – خصائصqualities
مهندس معماريarchitect خبرة لمدة سنتينtwo years' experience
يرتب – ينظمarrange -d -d مشروعproject
جزء من الوقت part- time وقت كاملfull-time
المحاسبةaccounting رياضياتmaths
إعلانadvertisement شريك – زميلpartner
لقب ( السيد – آنسة) title يناقشdiscuss
الاسم الأولfirst name استمارة طلب التحاقapplication form
تاريخ الميلادdate of birth الاسم الأخير – اللقبsurname= last name
عنوان – محل الإقامةaddress جنسيةnationality
الحالة الاجتماعيةmarital status التعليمeducation
أعزبsingle متزوجmarried
يمر – يجتاز - ينجحpass X fail امتحانexam
ضابط شرطةpolice officer قريب – نسيبrelative
رجل الإطفاءfireman ممرضةnurse
ميتdead X alive يؤدىperform
مشروعproject يأخذ أو يلتقط صورtake photos
طفلchild أطفالchildren
أحفادgrandchildren جدد grandparents
spend spent spent
يقضى وقتا – ينفق مالا around the country
فى كل أنحاء القطر

• Prepositions:
يتحدث بالنيابة عن- speak for
مختلف عن - different from
يعمل لدى أو لصالح - work for
يملأ (استمارة) - fill in -ed -ed
- apply for (a job – a visa)
يتقدم بطلب (لوظيفه أو تأشيره)
يتقدم بالطلب شخصياً- apply in person
- look up
يبحث عن معلومه (فى كتاب أو قاموس)
تحت قيادة- under the leadership of
فى سن - at the age of
سبب - cause of
يلعب دوراً فى- play a part in
- children with heart problems
أطفال يعانون من مشكلات فى القلب
لديه خبره فى - have experience in
مفيد ل- good for
يقدم تقرير عن - report on
تأهل ليصبح .....- qualified as يموت من مرض- die of
يشير إلى- refer to
فخور ﺑ - proud of
يقوم بعمل بحث فى - do research on
- apply to (a company)
يتقدم بطلب (للشركه)
يتقدم بالطلب كتابة- apply in writing
يملأ إستماره- fill in
مهتم ب - interested in = keen on
يدرس فى- study at (school)
يكتشف- find out
يستفيد من- benefit from
سبب - reason for
يلعب دوراً فى - play a role in
ماهر فى- good at = clever at
يودع - see off
- from all over the world
من كل أنحاء العالم
فى نهاية الأسبوع- at the weekend

• Derivatives:
Verb Noun Adjective
delegate يوفد delegation وفد
delegate مندوب
lead يقود leader قائد
leadership قيادة leading هام
operate يجري جراحة operation عملية operatorعامل التليفون
research يقوم بأبحاث research بحث researcher باحث
surgery/ surgeonجراحه surgical جراح
qualify يتأهل ل qualification مؤهلات qualified مؤهَل
retire يتقاعد retirement تقاعد retired متقاعد

• Important vocabulary for translation and composition:
أفاق- horizons
ينخفض- decline
فيما يتعلق ب- with regard to
ضحايا الحروب - war victims
غير حكومى- non-governmental يزدهر- flourish
التأمين على الحياه- life insurance
حقوق الإنسان - human rights
المعارضون- opponents
المؤيدون- supporters







 Work – Job - Occupation – Career – Profession - post
Work .(a شغل – عمل مكان العمل ( لا تعد ) لا تجمع و لا تسبق(.
1- He can't find work.
2- I always go to my work early every day.
Job: .( a)وظيفة ( تعد )تجمع و تسبق ﺑ
* He got a job as a teacher.
Occupation: وظيفة : وتستخدم فى الاستمارات الرسمية أو الحكومية ( بطاقة مثلاّ )
* Please, fill in this form with your name, address and occupation.
Career: مهنه – عمل – مجرى الحياة.
1- Her political career began 20 years ago.بدأ عملها السياسي منذ 20 عاماً.
Professio مهنة تحتاج إلى تعليم و تدريب مثل مهنة الطب، التدريس و المحاماة
* Teaching profession is very exciting and enjoyable.
وظيفة مهمةpost:
* She has got the post of sales manager.
*****************************
 stop + to + المصدر يتوقف لعمل شيء
 * I was hungry, so I stopped to eat something.
stop + v+ing= give up يتوقف عن عمل شيء
* At last, I stopped smoking
*****************************
 spend + وقت + v+ing يقضى وقتا فى عمل شيء
* Some children spend a lot of time watching TV.
spend + نقود +on ينفق مالا على شيء
* The government spends a lot of money on football.
*****************************
 decide to + المصدر يقرر أن
* I decided to study hard to succeed.
decide on = choose شيء يحدد – يختار
1- You should decide on your goal in life.
2- I decided on a name for the baby.
*****************************
 Proud فخور
proud of فخور ﺑ
* We are proud of our scientists who do their best for the progress and welfare of our
country.
proud to + المصدر فخور أن
* Axel was proud to be his uncle's assistant.
proud that + فخور ان فاعل They are proud that she is doing well at school.
فخور لكونهproud to be + n \v.ing
1- I am proud to be Egyptian.
2- I am proud to be helping to build a modern country.
 adapt– adopt
adapt to : change to suit new needs. يتكيف مع – يتأقلم مع
* Children adapt themselves to new situations.
adopt : take ( a child – an idea – a plan ) يتبنى ( طفل- فكرة – خطة )
*They don't have children, so they decided to adopt a child.
* The company adopted his idea.
***********************************
 arrive – reach – get to:
arrive يصل( فعل لازم لا يحتاج إلى مفعول)
* My uncle arrived yesterday.
arrive in + مكان كبير
* They arrived in Cairo yesterday.
arrive at + مكان صغير
* They arrived at Cairo Airport yesterday.
reach +مفعول ( مكان كبير أو صغير )
* They reached Cairo yesterday.
get to يصل الى ( مكان كبير أو صغير غالبا بصعوبة )
* At last, I got to the peak of the mountain.
***********************************
 well-known to معرف لدى.....
* He is well-known to everyone.
 well-known for ﺑ أو مشهور معروف
* He is well-known for his bravery.
********************************
 Cause – reason
cause + مفعول + to +يحدث – يسبب المصدر
* The earthquake caused the house to collapse.
cause + شخص + يحدث – يسبب شيء
* His behaviors caused his parents a lot of problems.
cause of سبب
* What is the cause of the accident?
reason for سبب – مبرر ﻠ
* We don't know the reason for his absence.
reason why + فاعل + فعل
* We don't know the reason why he is absent.
reason with + يتجادل مع شخص ليحاول إقناعه شخص
* He reasoned with me a lot but I didn't like the idea.
********************************
 historic –historical
ذو أهميه تاريخيه historic ( places – events – moments – days )
* Tourists usually visit the historic places in Egypt.
مرتبط بدراسة التاريخ historical ( researches – studies – plays – novels )
* I like reading historical novels.

 make a difference يعمل إختلاف ( يؤثر )
* He believes he can make a difference in people's lives.
********************************
 smart أنيق / ذكى
1- I like playing smart games on my computer.
2- She looks smart.
********************************
 delegation – mission- deputation
A delegation.بعثة - وفد - تفويض
* Russia demanded that Unita send a delegation to the peace talks.
A mission مهمة- بعثة – ارسالية دينية * He is a senior member of a diplomatic mission.
A deputation تفويض- وفد
* A deputation of elders from the village arrived headed by its chief.
A delegate = representativeمندوب - يفوض
1- My boss delegated me to solve the problem.
2- Last weekend the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland held a conference, attended by 450 delegates.
********************************
 needed مطلوب
* Surgeon needed at central hospital.
********************************
 junior – senior
الأقل أهميه – الأصغر – الأحدث عهداًjunior
* A company needed a junior architect.
أرقى – الأكبر سناً – الأرشدsenior
* TV and radio needed many women in senior jobs.
********************************
 fare – fees – wages – salary
أجرة التاكسى- ثمن تذكرة fare
* After I had arrived, I gave the driver the fare.
أتعاب / أجر (محامى / دكتور) fees
* Doctor's fees are very hard nowadays.
أجره (بالساعه أو باليوم أو بالاسبوع) إسم لا يعدwages
* The carpenter's wages are high.
مرتب (شهرى أو سنوى) إسم يعدsalary
* His salary is 300 pounds a month.
********************************
 full-time – part-time
نهاية الوقت فى المباريات – الوقت كاملا timefull-
1- My father works full-time as a driver.
2- The score at full time was Zamalek 1, Ahly 1.

جزء من الوقتpart-time
1- I am part-time. I work 3 days a week.
2- A part-time accountant needed at University of Science. [10 – 15 h. a week]
********************************
 train
يدرب .... علىtrain ….. in
* Children should be trained in good manners.
يتدرب كـ وظيفه + train as
* She trained as a pilot.
يتدرب لـ (سباق)train for
* She spends two hours trained for the race.
********************************
 surgeon – physician
جراح surgeon
* A doctor who performs operation is a surgeon.
طبيب معالج physician
* A doctor who treats diseases is a physician.
********************************
يؤمن أنه يستطيع عمل ...... can make + noun + فاعل believe + + فاعل •
1- Prof. M.Y. believes he can make a difference to people's lives.
2- I believe I can make a change in my students. (students' way of thinking)
********************************
• I have the qualifications and experience to + لدى المؤهلات والخبره لـ.... المصدر
* I have the qualifications and experience to work as an accountant.
********************************
 Make OR Do?

يتخذ أصدقاء- make friends
يتأكد- make sure
يقدم إسهامات - make contributions
له معنى- make sense
يقرر / يتخذ قرار - make a decision
- make a difference to
يحدث إختلاف فى / يكون له تأثير على
يخطئ- make a mistake
يصنع أجزاء السيارات- make parts of cars
يشعل نار- make a fire
يقدم إقتراح- make a suggestion
يعد- make a promise
يحقق إنجازات - make achievements
يحقق السلام- make peace
يشن حرب- make war
يعد الغذاء / العشاء- make lunch \ dinner
يرتب الأسِره- make the beds
يقرر- make up (his) mind
يثير ضوضاء- make a noise
يصمم اللغز- make a puzzle يقوم بعمليه جراحيه- do an operation
يؤدى وظيفه- do a job
يقوم بالعمل- do work
يتسوق- do the shopping
يقوم بواجباته المدرسيه- do the homework
يخطئ- do wrong
يفيد- do good
يضر- do harm
يقوم بغسل الأوانى- do the washing up
يقوم بالتنظيف- do the cleaning
يقوم بالكنس- do the sweeping
يؤدى خدمه أو معروف- do a favour
- do a project
يقوم بعمل بحث أو دراسه(فى مدرسه أو جامعه)
يقوم بعمل أبحاث- do research
يستغنى عن- do without
يصفف شعره- do (his) hair
يعمل شئ / لاشئ - do something\nothing
يقوم بالطهى- do the cooking
يحل اللغز- do a puzzle

 hard – hardly – hardy:
This is a hard question. = difficult X easy صعب adj.
صفة hard
Wood is a hard material. X soft صلب
He is a hard worker. مجد – مجتهد
Farming is a hard work. جاد – شاق
You must study hard to get high marks. بجد adv.
ظرف
I can't go out. It's raining hard. بشدة – بغزارة
I can hardly remember my old friends. بالكاد- بصعوبة
=almost not adv.
ظرف hardly
There is hardly any sugar in my tea. I can't drink it..

قوى – شديد – يستطيع الوجود و البقاء فى ظروف صعبة adj.
صفة hardy
This is a hardy plant. It can live without water for a long time.

 Expressing opinions with reasons: التعبير عن الرأى مع إعطاء السبب:
• The reason I like \ enjoy …… is that ……..
• The reason I don't like …….. is that ……..
• The best \ worst thing about ……..is ………
• The main reason is that ……..
• I enjoy \ love +v. ing
• I think \ believe …. because …..
• In my opinion \ view ….. as ……
• If you ask me, …… so that ……
Examples:-
1- The reason I like this job is that I meet all kinds of people.
2- The best thing about working here is the friendly people.
3- I enjoy working here because everyday is different.
4- The main reason is that I can earn a lot of money.
5- I think he will pass the exam because he studies hard.
6- In my opinion, we should use cars less as they pollute the air.
7- If you ask me, he should study harder so that he can pass the test.








زمن المضارع البسيط 1) The Present Simple Tense
• يستخدم للتعبير عن الأشياء التى تحدث كل يوم ( الروتين اليومى ):
- I go to work at seven o'clock.
• للتعبير عن الحقائق:
- The earth goes round the sun.
- Nurses look after patients in hospitals.
• يستخدم للتعبير عن حدث يتم لفترة طويلة:
- I have a bath every day.
• يستخدم المضارع البسيط في حالة طلب أو إعطاء التعليمات و الاتجاهات :
- How do I get to the station?
- You go straight on, then you turn left.
• يستخدم للتعبير عن المستقبل مع الأحداث المرتبطة بجداول مواعيد:
The train leaves at 9 a.m.
The film starts at 7.30 p.m.
• للتعبير عن المشاعر و الأفكار:
- I think so. - I like it.



1) يتكون من الفعل فى المصدر (بدون اضافات) اذا كان الفاعل:-
أسم جمع I , You , We , They ,
2) يضاف للفعل ( s \ es ) اذا كان الفاعل:-
اسم مفرد , He , She , It
3) يضاف للفعل ( es ) اذا كان منتهى ب:-
ss , ch , sh , x , o
go goes wash washes
fix fixes watch watches
miss misses

4) اذا كان الفعل منتهى بال ( y ) مسبوقه بحرف ساكن نحذف ( ( y ونضيف (ies ):-
hurry hurries carry carries
study studies


ينفى الفعل فى زمن المضارع البسيط بوضع (don't \ doesn't ) قبل الفعل:-
don't + infinitive اسم جمع , I , You , We , They
doesn't + infinitive اسم مفرد He , She , It ,

1- They don't study hard.
2- He doesn't study hard.




(1)السؤال المبدوء بعلامة استفهام:-



1) I get up at 6 every morning. "When"
- When do you get up?
2) She cooks fish. "What"
- What does she cook?
2) السؤال المبدوء بفعل مساعد:- وهو هنا ( do \ does )


1) Yes, I play football everyday. "Do"
- Do you play football everyday?
2) She does her homework in the evening. "Does"
- Does she do her homework in the evening?

يستخدم المضارع البسيبط مع الكلمات الأتيه :-
, occasionally = from time غالبا ًalways, usually, sometimes, often = frequently
/ أبداً never / نادراً rarely = seldom / عامة , generally من حين لأخر to time
every …..(day – week – morning – month – year) / من حين لأخرevery now and then
on ….. (Sundays – Mondays – Fridays ……)
1- She frequently visits the Pyramids.
2- They go to the club on Sundays.


Am / is / are + PP. يتكون المضارع البسيط في حالة المبنى للمجهول من
1- Somebody cleans this room every day. "Active"
This room is cleaned every day. "Passive"
2- They grow cotton and rice in Syria. "Active"
Cotton and rice are grown in Syria. "Passive"

:زمن المضارع المستمر 2) The Present Continuous Tense

• عندما نقول اننا فى منتصف الحدث أى يحدث الأن أثناء الكلام:-
- She is writing a letter now.
- The water is boiling. Can you turn it off?
• عندما نقول اننا فى منتصف شئ ما و لكن ليس من الضرورى ان نكون فيه أثناء الكلام:-
- I must get back to the office. We are working on a new project.
- We are busy these days. We are doing a course at university.
• للتغبير عن التخطيط للمستقبل أو التعبير عن حدث تم التخطيط له أن يحدث فى المستقبل:-
- I am meeting Hany at six.
- She is coming soon.

يتكون من:-
I am
ing+ فعل + is اسم مفرد He , She , It ,
areاسم جمع , You , We , They
لاحظ الأفعال الاتيه:-
1) الأفعال المنتهيه ب (e)غالباً ما نحذف ال(e)عند اضافة ال(:(ing-
come coming take taking
ماعدا
see seeing agree agreeing

2) الأفعال المنتهيه بحرف ساكن قبله متحرك غالباً نضاعف الحرف الأخير عند اضافة(ing):-
put putting cut cutting shut shutting

3) الأفعال المنتهيه ب(y ) لا يحدث بها أى تغيير عند اضافة (ing):-
carry carrying hurry hurrying
لاحظ أن
die dying tie tying lie lying
4) هناك أفعال لا تستخدم فى المضارع المستمر الا فى حالات خاصه او تستخدم هذة الافعال فى المضارع البسيط ( الافعال الخاصه بالمشاعر و الافكار):-
want , like , love , understand , mean , see , forget , hear , hate , need believe , remember , prefer , dislike , know , seem , realize.
- I want to leave now.
- We understand the lesson now.
5) لاحظ مضاعفة الحرف الأخير قبل إضافة ing في الأفعال المكونة من مقطع واحد ويسبق الحرف الأخير حرف متحرك.
hit hitting run running stop stopping

6) في حالة وجود زمنين في المضارع المستمر لهما نفس الفاعل و يربط بينهما and تحذف am/is/are
- He is teaching English and learning French.


عند نفى المضارع المستمر نضع ( not ) بعد (- : (am \ is \ are
- I am not sleeping.

(1)السؤال المبدوء بعلامة استفهام:-
? باقى السؤالing + + فعل + فاعل am \ is \ are ++ علامة الاستفها
1) They are sleeping in bedroom. "Where"
Where are they sleeping?
(2) السؤال المبدوء بفعل مساعد:- وهو هنا ((am \ is \ are
? باقى السؤال + ing + فعل + فاعل + am \ is \ are
1) Yes, I am reading now. "Are"
Are you reading now?


يستخدم المضارع المستمر مع:-
now / at the moment / look! / Listen!/ at present
1- I am reading an interesting book at the moment.
2- Listen to those people. What language are they speaking?


Am / is / are + being + PP. يتكون المضارع المستمر في حالة المبنى للمجهول من
1- Somebody is cleaning the room. "Active"
The room is being cleaned. "Passive"


زمن الماضى البسيط 3) The Past Simple Tense

1 - للتعبير عن حدث انتهي في وقت معين في الماضي:
1- I went to Cairo last week.
2- The Chinese invented printing centuries ago.
2 - في سياق قصــة في الماضي:
* Sam walked down the road to the block of flats on the corner. He went through the door and pressed the button for the lift. He went up to …..
3 - للتعبير عن موقف أو عادة في الماضي:
* When I was young, I lived in Alex.

1) يتكون من إضافة ((ed – d وتسمى هذه الأفعال أفعال منتظمه مثل:-
play played visit visited
watch watched dance danced
2) هناك أفعال شاذه لا نضيف لها ) (ed - d وتتغير كلياً من المضارع الى الماضى مثل:-
am – is was are were
have – has had do – does did
go went ride rode
3) هناك أفعال شاذه لا تتغير من المضارع الى الماضى مثل:-
cut cut put put read read
4) إذا كان الفعل يتكون من مقطع واحد و ينتهي بحرف ساكن يسبقه متحرك ، يضاعف الحرف الأخير :
plan planned stop stopped
grab grabbed refer referred
5) الأفعال المنتهيه ب ( y ) يسبقها حرف ساكن نحولها الى ( ied ) :-
carry carried marry married

عند نفى الماضى البسيط نستخدم التركيب الأتى:-


1- It didn’t rain.
• 2- Yes, I went to the cinema, but I didn’t enjoy the film.



(1)السؤال المبدوء بعلامة استفهام:-


A: They went to cinema last week. "Where"
B: Where did they go last week?

(2) السؤال المبدوء بفعل مساعد:- وهو هنا ( did )


A: I didn’t know him then. "Did"
B: Did you see Mark at lunch time?


يستخدم الماضى البسيط مع كلمات مثل:
last (year, night, week, month / summer) / ago / yesterday / in ancient times / once upon a time / the other day, year (= a few days, years ago)/ in 2000 / in the past


يتكون الماضي البسيط في المبني للمجهول من :
الفاعل + was \ were + p . p.+ by + المفعول
1- The Chinese invented printing centuries ago. "Active"
- Printing was invented by the Chinese centuries ago. "Passive"


:زمن الماضى المستمر 4) The Past Continuous Tense
1- للتعبير عن حدث مستمر أثناء وقت معين في الماضي :
• * Between six and half past six this morning, I was having breakfast.
2 - للتعبير عن حدث مستمر فى الماضى قطعه حدث آخر :
• * I was having a shower when the phone rang.
3- يأتى في سياق قصة أو موقف في الماضي :
• 1- I was studying Chemistry when I met Jane.
• 2- He was doing research when they arrested him.

يتكون من:-
+v.ing was اسم مفردHe , She , It , I,
were اسم جمع , You , We , They
He was sleeping at 2 yesterday.*


ينفى الفعل فى زمن الماضى المستمر بالأتى "was \ were = not = v.ing":-
* He wasn't sleeping at 3 yesterday.



(1)السؤال المبدوء بعلامة استفهام:-
? باقى السؤالing + + فعل + فاعل was \ were ++ علامة الاستفهام
- I was studying at 9 yesterday. "What"
What were you doing at 9 yesterday?

(2) السؤال المبدوء بفعل مساعد:- وهو هنا ((was \ were
? باقى السؤال + ing + فعل + فاعل + am \ is \ are
- I was cooking at six yesterday. "Were"
Were you cooking at six yesterday?

يستخدم مع at……..yesterday. at……..last
ومع الروابط الأتيه: While / when / As / Just as


يتكون الماضى المستمر في المبني للمجهول من :
+ was \ were + being + p.p. المفعول
• * He was doing research when they arrested him. "Active"
• - Research was being done when they arrested him. " Passive"
ملاحظات هامه على الماضى المستمر:
 لاحظ أن when يمكن أن يأتي بعدها ماضى بسيط :
• - We were doing the homework when it started to rain.
 يمكن أن يكون الحدثين مع while في الماضي المستمر :
• - While I was studying, my father was reading.
يمكن أن يكون الحدثين مع when في الماضي البسيط :
• - When he arrived, he found the door locked.
 يمكن استخدام On بدلا من when و يأتي يعدها : V+ing
• - When he arrived, he found the door locked. (On …)
On arriving, he found the door locked.
 يمكن استخدام during بدلا من while و يأتي يعدها noun / V+ing :
• - While he was playing the game, he got hurt. (during)
During the game, he got hurt. \ He got hurt during the game.
 الفعل بعد and يأخذ نفس شكل الفعل الذي يسبقها:
• 1- He was writing a letter and listening to some music.
• 2- She has finished work and gone home.
 لاحظ عدم استخدام to Be في الماضي المستمر:
- While I was at school, I worked to a plan.





زمن المضارع التام5) The Present Perfect Tense

يستخدم المضارع التام للتعبير عن:
1- حدث تم في الماضي ولا يزال له تأثير في الحاضر :
- My car has broken down. = I have to go to work by bus.

2- حدث تم في الماضي و ما زال مستمر في الحاضر :
1- I have done this job for many years. = I still do this job.
2- But I lived in Cairo for many years. = I live somewhere else now.(ماضي بسيط)
3- لوصف حدث انتهى منذ فتره قصيره جداً:-
- I've just finished my homework.





• 1- He has just bought a new car.
2- They have already done the shopping.

عند نفى الفعل فى زمن المضارع التام نضع " not " بعد " " have \ has :-
have not = haven't has not = hasn't
- I haven't bought a new car yet.

يستخدم المضـارع التام مع كلمات مثـل :
already / just / ever / never / yet / since / for / lately / recently / so far / up till now
و يستخدم إذا بدأت الجملة بمـا يلـي :
It’s/This is the first (second…) time..
It’s (This) is the only…
In the last few years/months
In recent years
over the ages / over the years / over the centuries علي مر العصور/ السنين/القرون
- It’s the first time I have been to this place.
- This is the only play I have seen.
- Egypt has made great progress in the last few years.


يتكون المضارع التام في المبني للمجهول من :
+ has \ have + p.p. المفعول
- She has cooked lunch. "Active"
Lunch has been cooked. "Passive"

ملاحظات هامه على المضارع التام:
 لاحظ أن ever/never/just/ already تأتي بينhave/has والتصريف الثالث : PP.
* I have just written the letter.
 لاحظ استخدام ever في السؤال و never في الإجابة :
* Have you ever travelled by plane?
No, I have never travelled by plane.
Just = a short time ago/ a minute/ a moment ago
* They left the building a minute ago. (just)
= They have just left the building.
 لاحظ استخدام since / for
Since + بداية الحدث

Since last week / last summer / 1999 / five o’clock / October / this morning / yesterday / then / Monday / breakfast
1- She hasn’t phoned us since October

For + فترة زمنية

For a week / the last week / a year / five hours / three months / two days / a long time
1- I haven’t cleaned the house for a week..
 في حــالة وجـود فعـل واحــد مع since نستخدم المضارع التام :
 في حـالة وجـود فعلين ، يأتي بعد since ماضي بسيط past simple و الفعل الثاني في المضارع التام
* I haven’t seen her since she graduated.
 لاحظ أنه يمكن استخدام ago مـع since :
* I haven't seen him since three years ago.
 ولكن في حالة وجود ago فقط ، نستخدم past simple :
* I saw him three years ago.

 Last / The last time / ago + past simple
 عند استخدام since / for بدلا من الكلمات السابقة نستخدم مضارع تام منفى:
1- I last had my hair cut when I was in Cairo. (since)
= I haven’t had my hair cut since I was in Cairo.

2- The last time I met Jennie was in 2000. (since / for )
= I haven’t met Jennie since 2000.
= I haven’t met Jennie for 9 years.
= I haven't met Jennie since 9 years ago.

3- The last time I played chess was six years ago. (since/for)
= I haven’t played chess since 2003.
= I haven’t played chess for six years.
= I haven't played chess since six years ago.
•في حالة استخدام ago بدلا من for نستخدم started to / began to + inf.:
* He has learnt English for six years. (ago)
He began / started to learn English six years ago.


• لاحظ انه عند استخدام since بدلا من for نستخدم التركيب الآتي:

It’s + فترة زمنية + since + فاعل + + last + ماضي بسيط

* He hasn’t visited his uncle for a long time. (since)
It’s a long time since he last visited his uncle.
• لاحظ انه عند استخدام ever بدلا من never نستخدم صيغة تفضيل:
* I have never done such a tiring job. (This is…)
= This is the most tiring job I have ever done.
• لاحظ انه عند استخدام never بدلا من ever نستخدم such (a/an) adj. + n.:
* This is the worst luck I have ever had. (never)
= I have never had such bad luck.
• لاحظ استخدام yet في الجملة المنفيــة
* I haven’t finished my homework yet.
•في حالة استخدام yet بدلا من still نستخدم مضارع تام منفى بدلا من المضارع المستمر:
* He is still writing the report. (yet)
He hasn’t finished writing the report yet.
• تستخدم yet في نفي جمــلة بهـا just / already :
* He has just arrived. He hasn’t arrived yet.





• Exercises on Vocabulary and Language Notes:
1- Choose the correct answer:
1- Surgeons (do – make – act – bring) heart transplant operations.
2- She works for a charitable organisation as she believes that her work (does – lacks – takes – makes) a difference to people's lives.
3- It's been more than 2 years since he (did – made – had – went) that operation. Now
he's quite healthy.
4- I don't think she has (did – took – made – written) the right decision.
5- You (had – made – did – saw) me a big favour and I really appreciate يقدر it.
6- She (reached – got – went – arrived) in New York 2 days ago.
7- If you (question – talk – ask – wonder) me, he should look for another job.
8- She hopes to (identify – verify – beautify – qualify) as a lawyer at the end of the year.
9- He's got to have an (operation – aspiration – collaboration – concentration) on his shoulder
10- A (vet – civil engineer – nurse – surgeon) is a doctor who is specially trained to perform medical operations
11- We visited some (history - historic - historical -historian) places and saw temples and statues.
12- A company can send a (delegation – group – team – company) when it needs people to speak for it at a meeting.
13- We call the children of our children (grandparents – grandchildren – grandfathers - forefathers)
14- You can install (air conditioning- air conditioner – air condition – air conditioned) in a modern building if it is too hot?
15- You know a person is a police officer, a nurse or a fireman because of ( uniform – shoe- boot- nail )
16- Professor Magdi Yacoub was one of the first surgeons to (do- make – carry – cause) heart transplant operations.
17 - Professor Magdi Yacoub was part of a team which ( do – make – fabricate – design) new heart parts from human cells.
18- He ( did – made – caused – brought) a lot of important work in his life.
19- He was a member of the team that (performed – represented- fabricated – made) the first heart operation in Britain.
20- The African charity he works (in -for – at – with )helps children with heart.
21- All the Egyptians are proud ( for- of – in – with) our distinguished scientists
22-I'm proud ( to be- to have been – of being –for being) your assistant in future.
23- Last week, I was reporting (on – for – at – in)that story almost every day.
24- Camels are ( hard- hardly -hardy-hardest) animals .it can live without water for a long time

تمارين من موقع الوزارة على الكلمات والملاحظات اللغوية
25- Our company is planning to send _____ to the next international meeting.
(. a group - . a worker - . a car - . a delegation)
26- Mrs Smith was very happy to become _____ when her daughter had a baby son.
(. a surgeon - . a grandmother - . a father - . a cousin)
27- The old doctor is looking forward to his _____ at 65 years because he will no longer have to work.
(. retirement - . holiday - . year - . society)
28- The boy needs _____ because his heart is not working properly and without a new heart he will die.
( a. a doctor - b. a charity - c. a transplant - d. a hospital )
29- It’s terribly hot in here. Please can you turn on the _____?
(. heater . lights parts . air conditioning )
30- That boy loves to draw buildings! I believe that he will become _____ when he grows up.
.( an engineer a businessman an architect . an artist )
31- _____ are important because they work on many things, from bridges and waterways to road systems.
(civil engineers architects . designers . managers )
32- When I was at school I liked my _____. It was red and grey and I loved wearing it.
(. teachers uniform classroom . shoes )
33- lawyer's ( fees- salaries-wages-fairs) are very expensive in these days.
34- He is well-kown ( for – to –of – about ) his intelligance
35- He reasoned (for-with –why – to ) me a lot but I didn't like the idea.
36- Please, fill in this form with your name, address and (job – career- occupation-work).
37- He(caused- reasoned -asked -applied) with me a lot but I didn't like the idea.
38- They(arrived - reached – got- came )Cairo yesterday.
39- Axel was(proud- proud to –proud of –bride)be his uncle's assistant.
40- Children should be trained( in – for- of- as ) good manners.

2. Complete the gaps with words from the box below.
research charity qualified experience applied maths meeting leader parts marital status

Heba is from Heliopolis. She works at a large tourist company as an accountant. Heba studied at university before she ____________ as an accountant, and then she successfully _____________ for her job with the tourist company. At her job Heba needs to work with a computer. She also needs to be good at ____________ to do her job well. Heba has a ____________ every week with her manager. She hopes that if she continues to work at the tourist company for a few more years, she will have enough _____________ to apply for a different job. Her dream is to work for a _____________ because she wants to help other people and to improve society.

3. Read this group of words. Place each into the right column, then use your Active complete the word families. Finally, write a sentence with each word.

research – operation – qualify – treatment – apply

Verb Noun Adjective















تمارين من موقع الوزارة على القواعد
• Exercises on Grammar
1- Choose the correct answer:
1- What exams _________ you passed?
a. are b. did c. have d. might
2- After I finished school, I __________ tourism at university.
a. study b. am studying c. have studied d. studied
3- Has Sara ___________ for any jobs yet?
a. applying b. applied c. apply d. application

4- Mona ___________ at Ain Shams Hospital on Thursdays and Fridays.
a. is working b. works c. has worked d. have worked
5- The university is __________for a qualified doctor at the moment.
a. advertisement b. advertised c. advertises d. advertising
6- While I _________ for work I saw an advertisement for my dream job!
a. was looking b. looked c. have looked d. looks
7- People __________ work when they are older for many reasons.
a. continued b. continue to c. continuing to d. have continued to
8- I __________ working with my company but now I want to look for another job.
a. enjoyed b. enjoying c. have enjoyed d. enjoyed to
9- __________ people should work in their 70s or 80s?
a. Are you thinking b. You are thinking c. Do you thinking d. Do you think
10- He was the first one ………………..…..… at work .
a. arrives b. arrived c. to arrive d. would arrive
11- The students are ………………. about what they are learning at school .
a. proud b. excited c. pleased d. interested
12- He is ………………………research into the effects of insecticides .
a. getting b. doing c. making d. playing
13- My son was …………………… a prize for his good work at school .
a. got b. won c. awarded d. taken
14- His family was ……………….……... of his success at school .
a. proud b. happy c. pleased d. excited
15- That famous singer ……………………. two concerts last month .
a. made b. devised c. gave d. did
16- They discussed the matter before …………..…….. the decision .
a. making b. devising c. taking d. giving
17- Although he was still young he ………… part in many sports competitions and won medals .
a. got b. gave c. took d. make
18- The farmers …………………. a new way of collecting their crops .
a. spent b. devised c. made d. gave
19- We met on several ……………..…… last year .
a. happenings b. accidents c. incidents d. occasions
20- My father said to me , "Your teacher has some good advise …….. you."
a. for b. to c. with d. on
21- Dr Hawass sometimes .................. in the 'magazine "Egypt Today".
a. writes b. will write c. write d. has written
22- Who .................. with when you visited the- museum yesterday?
a. did you go b. do you go c. you went d. have you gone
23- You must take your umbrella. It ……………..outside.
a. is raining b. rains c. rained d. should have rained
24- I haven't seen Mr. John.........
a. long time b. recently c. sometimes d. lately
25- The gardener hasn't put water on the garden .... a long time.
a. since b. ago c. for d. still

2. Rewrite using the word in brackets to give the same meaning.
1. From when he was a small child he always wanted to be a surgeon. (since)
_______________________________________________________
2. I was doing my homework. At the same time my brother was watching TV. (while)
_______________________________________________________
3. She worked as a surgeon. Then she did research on new treatments. (before)
_______________________________________________________
4. I enjoy working here because every day is different. (reason)
_______________________________________________________
5. I am working on a new project. I started in February. (since)
_______________________________________________________

3. Find the mistakes and correct them
Dawud is nearly 18 years old and he hopes to go to university. The problem is that he does not know what job he would like to make. He have not yet decided what to study at university. Dawud thinks that working as a doctor would be enjoyable because he could help others. He also thinks that he might like to be an accountant, but he does a lot of mistakes in mathematics. Dawud would also like to become a teacher because he enjoying helping his younger brothers and sisters to make their homework. Whatever career Dawud chooses, he wants to do a difference in people’s lives.

4. Read the paragraph. Underline the correct word in parentheses.
I (was working - work – have worked) as an architect for an international company called Omega Development. I first (studied – was studying – study) architecture for six years and then I worked for two years for a smaller company to get some basic experience. I (begin – have begun – began) working at Omega Development as a Junior Architect five years ago and now I am Senior Architect. With Omega Development I (worked – have worked – was working) on many projects such as holiday resorts in the Red Sea and big city office developments. Currently I (am working – work – was working) on designing and developing a luxury hotel. The best thing about this job is that it (gave – has given – was giving) me many opportunities for travel and for meeting interesting people.






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